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Bystander activated CD8+ T cells mediate neuropathology during viral infection via antigen-independent cytotoxicity

Balint E, Feng E, Giles E, Ritchie TM, Qian AS, Vahedi F, Montemarano A, Portillo AL, Monteiro JK, Trigatti BL, Ashkar AA.

Nat Comm. 2024 Feb 5; doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-44667-0

Charting a killer course to the solid tumor: strategies to recruit and activate NK cells in the tumor microenvironment

Portillo AL, Monteiro JK, Rojas EA, Ritchie TM, Gillgrass A, Ashkar AA.

Front Immunol. 2023 Nov 8; doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1286750

Natural Killer Cell-Derived Interferon-γ Regulates Macrophage-Mediated Immunopathology During Viral Infection

Feng E, Monteiro JK, Portillo AL, Balint E, Ashkar AA.

J Infect Dis. 2023 Mar 30; doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiad084

Type I interferon regulates proteolysis by macrophages to prevent immunopathology following viral infection

Lee AJ & Feng E, ​​Chew MV, Balint E, Poznanski SM, Giles E, Zhang A, Marzok A, Revill SD, Vahedi F, Dubey A, Ayaub E, Jimenez-Saiz R, McGrath JJC, Ritchie TM, Jordana M, Jonigk DD, Ackermann M, Ask K, Miller M, Richards CD, Ashkar AA. 

PLOS Pathog. 2022 May 05; doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010471

Vaginal transmission causes prolonged Zika virus shedding in the vaginal mucosa and delays systemic dissemination

Balint E, Somani AA, Giles EC, Feng E, Vahedi F, Ashkar AA

Immunol Cell Biol. 2022 Mar 29; doi: 10.1111/imcb.1254

Pathogen-Repellent Plastic Wrap with Built-In Hierarchical Structuring Prevents the Contamination of Surfaces with Coronaviruses

MacLachlan R & Vahedi F, Imani SM, Ashkar AA, Didar TF, Soleymani L

ACS AMI. 2022 Feb 28; doi: 10.1021/acsami.1c21476

Production of human CAR-NK cells with lentiviral vectors and functional assessment in vitro

Portillo AL,  Hogg R, Ashkar AA.

STAR Protocols. 2021 Nov 18; doi: 10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100956

From Mosquito Bites to Sexual Transmission: Evaluating Mouse Models of Zika Virus Infection

Balint E, Montemarano A, Feng E, Ashkar AA.

Viruses. 2021 Nov 8; doi: 10.3390/v13112244


Immunoregulatory Functions of Interferons During Genital HSV-2 Infection

Feng E, Balint E, Vahedi F, Ashkar AA.

Front Immunol. 2021 Aug 18; doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.724618


Remote hyperinflammation drives neurological disease via T-cell-mediated innate-like cytoxicity

Balint E, Ashkar AA.

Cell Mol Immunol. 2021 June 7; doi: 10.1038/s41423-021-00705-9

Expanded human NK cells armed with CAR uncouple potent anti-tumor activity from off-tumor toxicity against solid tumors

Portillo AL, Hogg R, Poznanski SM, Rojas EA, Cashell NJ, Hammill JA, Chew MV, Shenouda MM, Ritchie TM, Cao QT, Hirota JA, DHesy-Thind A, Bramson JL, Ashkar AA

iScience. 2021 May 19; 5. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.102619 

Metabolic flexibility determines human NK cell functional fate in the tumor microenvironment

Poznanski SM, Sing K, Ritchie TM, Aguiar JA, Fan IY, Portillo AL, Rojas EA, Vahedi F, El-Sayes A, Xing S, Butcher M, Lu Y, Doxey AC, Schertzer JD, Hirte HW, Ashkar AA

Cell Metabolism. 2021 June 1; 22, 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.023

Aging and Interferons: Impacts on Inflammation and Viral Disease Outcomes

Feng E, Balint E, Poznanski SM, Ashkar AA, Loeb M

Cells. 2021 Mar 3; 10, 708. doi: 10.3390/cells10030708

Expanded human NK cells from lung cancer patients sensitize patients’ PDL1− negative tumors to PD1-blockade therapy

Poznanski SM, Ritchie TM, Fan IY, El-Sayes A, Portillo AL, Ben-Avi R, Rojas EA, Chew MV, Shargall Y, Ashkar AA

J Immunother Cancer. 2021 Jan 21; 9(1). doi: 10.1136/jitc-2020-001933

Asthma exacerbations on benralizumab are largely non-eosinophilic

Poznanski SM, Mukherjee M, Zhao N, Huang C, Radford K, Ashkar AA, Nair P. 

Allergy. 2020 July 23; 76 (1). doi: 10 .1111 /al l .14514

What Defines NK Cell Functional Fate: Phenotype or Metabolism?

Poznanski SM, Ashkar AA.

Front Immunol. 2019 Jun 19;10:1414. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01414.

Type I Interferon Receptor on NK Cells Negatively Regulates Interferon-γ Production.

Lee AJ, Mian F, Poznanski SM, Stackaruk M, Chan T, Chew MV, Ashkar AA.

Front Immunol. 2019 Jun 4;10:1261. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01261.

Thermal Stabilization of Viral Vaccines in Low-Cost Sugar Films.

Leung V, Mapletoft J, Zhang A, Lee A, Vahedi F, Chew M, Szewczyk A, Jahanshahi-Anbuhi S, Ang J, Cowbrough B, Miller MS, Ashkar A, Filipe CDM.

Sci Rep. 2019 May 21;9(1):7631. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-44020-w.

News Feature: McMaster NewsNational Post

Shining light on the significance of NK cell CD56 brightness.

Poznanski SM, Ashkar AA.

Cell Mol Immunol. 2018 Dec;15(12):1071-1073. doi: 10.1038/s41423-018-0163-3.

The Dual Nature of Type I and Type II Interferons.

Lee AJ, Ashkar AA.

Front Immunol. 2018 Sep 11;9:2061. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02061. eCollection 2018.

Immunometabolism of T cells and NK cells: metabolic control of effector and regulatory function.

Poznanski SM, Barra NG, Ashkar AA, Schertzer JD.

Inflamm Res. 2018 Oct;67(10):813-828. doi: 10.1007/s00011-018-1174-3.

Expanded CD56superbrightCD16+ NK Cells from Ovarian Cancer Patients Are Cytotoxic against Autologous Tumor in a Patient-Derived

Xenograft Murine Model.

Poznanski SM, Nham T, Chew MV, Lee AJ, Hammill JA, Fan IY, Butcher M, Bramson JL, Lee DA, Hirte HW, Ashkar AA.

Cancer Immunol Res. 2018 Jul 17. doi: 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-18-0144.

L-15 and IFN-γ signal through the ERK pathway to inhibit HCV replication, independent of type I IFN signaling.

Vahedi F, Lee AJ, Collins SE, Chew MV, Lusty E, Chen B, Dubey A, Richards CD, Feld JJ, Russell RS, Mossman KL, Ashkar AA.

Cytokine. 2018 Jun 13. pii: S1043-4666(18)30254-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2018.06.006.

High Intensity Interval Training Increases Natural Killer Cell Number and Function in Obese Breast Cancer-challenged Mice and Obese Women.

Barra NG, Fan IY, Gillen JB, Chew M, Marcinko K, Steinberg GR, Gibala MJ, Ashkar AA.

J Cancer Prev. 2017 Dec;22(4):260-266. doi: 10.15430/JCP.2017.22.4.260.

Ex vivo-expanded NK cells from blood and ascites of ovarian cancer patients are cytotoxic against autologous primary ovarian cancer cells.

Nham T, Poznanski SM, Fan IY, Shenouda MM, Chew MV, Lee AJ, Vahedi F, Karimi Y, Butcher M, Lee DA, Hirte H, Ashkar AA.

Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018 Jan 3. doi: 10.1007/s00262-017-2112-x.

High Intensity Interval Training Increases Natural Killer Cell Number and Function in Obese Breast Cancer-challenged Mice and Obese Women.

Barra NG, Fan IY, Gillen JB, Chew M, Marcinko K, Steinberg GR, Gibala MJ, Ashkar AA.

J Cancer Prev. 2017 Dec;22(4):260-266. doi: 10.15430/JCP2017.22.4.260. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Ex vivo-expanded Natural Killer Cells Derived From Long-term Cryopreserved Cord Blood are Cytotoxic Against Primary Breast Cancer Cells.

Nham T, Poznanski SM, Fan IY, Vahedi F, Shenouda MM, Lee AJ, Chew MV, Hogg RT, Lee DA, Ashkar AA.

J Immunother. 2017 Nov 17. doi: 10.1097/CJI.0000000000000192. [Epub ahead of print]

Ex Vivo Expanded Human NK cells Survive and Proliferate in Humanized Mice with Autologous Human Immune Cells.

Vahedi F, Nham T, Poznanski SM, Chew MV, Shenouda MM, Lee D, Ashkar AA.

Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 21;7(1): 12083. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12223-8.

The Application of Humanized Mouse Models for the Study of Human Exclusive Viruses.

Vahedi F, Giles EC, Ashkar AA.

Methods Molec Biol. 2017; 1656: 1-56. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7237-1_1.

Ex vivo expanded natural killer cells from breast cancer patients and healthy donors are highly cytotoxic against breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived tumours.

Shenouda MM, Gillgrass A, Nham T, Hogg R, Lee AJ, Chew MV, Shafaei M, Aarts C, Lee DA, Hassell J, Bane A, Dhesy-Thind S, Ashkar AA.

Breast Cancer Res. 2017 Jul 1;19(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s13058-017-0867-9.



IL-18/IL-15/IL-12 synergy induces elevated and prolonged IFN-γ production by ex vivo expanded NK cells which is not due to enhanced STAT4 activation.

Lusty E, Poznanski SM, Kwofie K, Mandur TS, Lee DA, Richards CD, Ashkar AA.

Mol Immunol. 2017 Aug;88:138-147. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2017.06.025. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

PMID: 28644973


Combined Stimulation with Interleukin-18 and Interleukin-12 Potently Induces Interleukin-8 Production by Natural Killer Cells.

Poznanski SM, Lee AJ, Nham T, Lusty E, Larché MJ, Lee DA, Ashkar AA.

J Innate Immun. 2017 Jun 21. doi: 10.1159/000477172. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28633138

A novel virus-vectored respiratory mucosal vaccine enhances anti-tuberculosis immunity in a humanized model system.

Yao Y, Lai R, Afkhami S, Haddadi S, Zganiacz A, Vahedi F, Ashkar AA, Kaushic C, Jeyanathan M, Xing Z.

J Infect Dis. 2017 May 20. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix252. [Epub ahead of print] 

PMID: 28531291


Inflammatory monocytes require type I interferon receptor signaling to activate NK cells via IL-18 during a mucosal viral infection. 

Lee AJ, Chen B, Chew MV, Barra NG, Shenouda MM, Nham T, Rooijen Nv, Jordana M, Mossman KL,

Schreiber RD, Mack M, Ashkar AA. J. Exp. Med. 2017 Mar 6;214(3). doi: 10.1084/jem.20160880. 

PMID: 28264883


Type I interferon signalling is not required for the induction of endotoxin tolerance.

Karimi Y, Poznanski S, Vahedi F, Chen B, Chew M, Lee A, Ashkar AA. Cytokine. 2017 Jul 31;95:7-11. 

doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2017.01.017. 

PMID: 28189043


Epitope specificity plays a critical role in regulating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza A virus.

He W, Tan GS, Mullarkey CE, Lee AJ, Lam MM, Krammer F, Henry C, Wilson PC, Ashkar AA,

Palese P, Miller MS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Oct 18;113(42):11931-11936.

doi:10.1073/pnas.1609316113. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

PMID: 27698132


M2-polarized and tumor-associated macrophages alter NK cell phenotype and function in a contact-dependent manner.

Krneta T, Gillgrass A, Poznanski S, Chew M, Lee AJ, Kolb M, Ashkar AA. J Leukoc Biol.

doi:10.1189/jlb.3A1215-552R. Epub 2016 Aug 4. 

PMID: 27493241 


Immunization with chlamydial type III secretion antigens reduces vaginal shedding and prevents fallopian tube pathology following live C. muridarum challenge

Bulir D, Liang S, Lee A, Chong S, Simms E, Stone C, Kaushic C, Ashkar AA, Mahony J.

Vaccine. 2016 Jul 25; 34(34): 3979-3985. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.06.046. Epub 2016 Jun 17. PMID: 27325352


Reconstitution of immune cell in liver and lymph node of adult- and newborn-engrafted humanized mice.

Dykstra C, Lee AJ, Lusty EJ, Shenouda MM, Shafai M, Vahedi F, Chew MV, Collins S, Ashkar AA.

BMC Immunol. 2016 Jun 16;17(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s12865-016-0157-9.

PMID: 27307066


S6K-STING interaction regulates cytosolic DNA-mediated activation of the transcription factor IRF3.

Wang F, Alain T, Szretter KJ, Stephenson K, Pol JG, Atherton MJ, Hoang HD, Fonseca BD, Zakaria

C, Chen L, Rangwala Z, Hesch A, Chan ES, Tuinman C, Suthar MS, Jiang Z, Ashkar AA, Thomas

G, Kozma SC, Gale M Jr, Fitzgerald KA, Diamond MS, Mossman K, Sonenberg N, Wan Y,

Lichty BD.

Nat Immunol. 2016 May;17(5):514-22. doi: 10.1038/ni.3433. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

PMID: 27043414


The breast tumor microenvironment alters the phenotype and function of natural killer cells.

Krneta T, Gillgrass A, Chew M, Ashkar AA. Cell Mol Immunol. 2015 Aug 17.

doi: 10.1038/cmi.2015.42. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 26277898

Novel function of Oncostatin M as a potent tumour-promoting agent in lung.

Lauber S, Wong S, Cutz JC, Tanaka M, Barra N, Lhoták S, Ashkar A, Richards CD.

Int J Cancer. 2015 Feb 15;136(4):831-43. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29055. Epub 2014 Jul 7.

PMID: 24976180


Vitamin D3 modulates the function of chicken macrophages.

Shojadoost B, Behboudi S, Villanueva Al, Brisbin JT, Ashkar AA, Sharif S.

Res Vet Sci. 2015 Jun; 100: 45-51. doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.03.009. Epub 2015 Mar 9.

PMID: 25814176


Type I IFN signaling on dendritic cells is required for NK cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity.

Karimi K, Karimi Y, Chan J, Boudreau JE, Basset J, Chew MV, Reid S, Bramson JL, Wan Y,

Ashkar AA.

Innate Immun. 2015 Mar 5. pii:1753425915575078. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 25749844


Defective NOD2 peptidoglycan sensing promotes diet-induced inflammation, dysbiosis and insulin resistance. 

Denou E, Lolmède K, Garidou L, Pomie C, Chabo C, Lau TC, Fullerton MD, Nigro G, Zakaroff-Girard

A, Luche E, Garret C, Serino M, Amar J, Courtney M, Cavallari JF, Henriksbo BD, Barra NG, Foley

KP, McPhee JB, Duggan BM, O'Neill HM, Lee AJ, Sansonetti P, Ashkar AA, Khan WI, Surette MG,

Bouloumié A, Steinberg GR, Burcelin R, Schertzer JD.

EMBO Mol Med. 2015 Feb 9. pii: e201404169. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201404169. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 25666722 


The absence or overexpression of IL-15 drastically alters breast cancer metastasis via effects on NK cells, CD4 T cells, and macrophages.

Gillgrass A, Gill N, Babian A, Ashkar AA.

J Immunol. 2014 Dec 15:193(12):6184-91. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol. 1303175. Epub 2014 Oct 29

PMID: 25355926 


Novel roles of cytoplasmic ICP0: proteasome-independent functions of the RING finger are required to block ISG production but not to promote viral replication. 

Taylor KE, Chew MV, Ashkar AA, Mossman KL.

J Virol. 2014 May 7.

PMID: 24807717


T helper cell IL-4 drives intestinal Th2 priming to oral peanut antigen, under the control of OX40L and independent of innate-like lymphocytes.

Chu DK, Mohammed-Ali Z, Jiménez-Saiz R, Walker TD, Goncharova S, Llop-Guevara A, Kong J,

Gordon ME, Barra NG, Gillgrass AE, Van Seggelen H, Khan WI, Ashkar AA, Bramson JL,

Humbles AA, Kolbeck R, Waserman S, Jordana M.

Mucosal Immunol. 2014 Apr 30. doi: 10.1038/mi.2014.29.

PMID: 24781052

Restoration of innate immune activation accelerates Th1-cell priming and protection following pulmonary mycobacterial infection.

Lai R, Jeyanathan M, Shaler CR, Damjanovic D, Khera A, Horvath C, Ashkar AA, Xing Z.

Eur J Immunol. 2014 May;44(5):1375-86. doi: 10.1002/eji.201344300. Epub 2014 Apr 4.



HIV-1 gp120 induces TLR2- and TLR4-mediated innate immune activation in human female genital epithelium.

Nazli A, Kafka JK, Ferreira VH, Anipindi V, Mueller K, Osborne BJ, Dizzell S, Chauvin S, Mian MF,

Ouellet M, Tremblay MJ, Mossman KL, Ashkar AA, Kovacs C, Bowdish DM, Snider DP, Kaul R,

Kaushic C.

J Immunol. 2013 Oct 15;191(8):4246-58. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301482. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

PMID: 24043886


Type I interferon regulation of natural killer cell function in primary and secondary infections.

Stackaruk ML, Lee AJ, Ashkar AA.

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013 Aug;12(8):875-84. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2013.814871. Review.

PMID: 23984959


Length of dsRNA (poly I:C) drives distinct innate immune responses, depending on the cell type.

Mian MF, Ahmed AN, Rad M, Babaian A, Bowdish D, Ashkar AA.

J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 23911868


Interleukin-15 is required for maximal lipopolysaccharide-induced abortion. 

Lee AJ, Kandiah N, Karimi K, Clark DA, Ashkar AA.

J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Jun;93(6):905-12. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0912442. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

PMID: 23505315


Immunity to ocular and genital herpes simplex viruses infections.

Chentoufi AA, BenMohamed L, Van De Perre P, Ashkar AA.

Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:732546. doi: 10.1155/2012/732546. Epub 2012 Dec 26.                    

No abstract available.

PMID: 23326289


The influence of macrophages and the tumor microenvironment on natural killer cells.

Krneta T, Gillgrass A, Ashkar AA.

Curr Mol Med. 2013 Jan;13(1):68-79.

PMID: 22834841

Interleukin-15 treatment induces weight loss independent of lymphocytes.

Barra NG, Chew MV, Reid S, Ashkar AA.

PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39553. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039553. Epub 2012 Jun 29.

PMID: 22768089

Critical role of natural killer cells in lung immunopathology during influenza infection in mice.

Abdul-Careem MF, Mian MF, Yue G, Gillgrass A, Chenoweth MJ, Barra NG, Chew MV, Chan T,

Al-Garawi AA, Jordana M, Ashkar AA.

J Infect Dis. 2012 Jul 15;206(2):167-77. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis340. Epub 2012 May 4.

PMID: 22561366


Genital HSV-2 infection induces short-term NK cell memory.

Abdul-Careem MF, Lee AJ, Pek EA, Gill N, Gillgrass AE, Chew MV, Reid S, Ashkar AA.

PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32821. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032821. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

PMID: 22457721

IL-15 can signal via IL-15Rα, JNK, and NF-κB to drive RANTES production by myeloid cells.

Chenoweth MJ, Mian MF, Barra NG, Alain T, Sonenberg N, Bramson J, Lichty BD, Richards CD,  

Ma A, Ashkar AA.

J Immunol. 2012 May 1;188(9):4149-57. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101883. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

PMID: 22447977

The nitric oxide pathway provides innate antiviral protection in conjunction with the type I interferon pathway in fibroblasts.

Mehta DR, Ashkar AA, Mossman KL.

PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31688. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031688. Epub 2012 Feb 21.

PMID: 22363706

Regulation of pregnancy maintenance and fetal survival in mice by CD27(low) mature NK cells.

Karimi K, Solano ME, Ashkar AA, Ho H, Steidle EM, McVey Neufeld KA, Hecher K, Bienenstock

J, Arck PC.

J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Sep;90(9):1047-57. doi: 10.1007/s00109-012-0872-5. Epub 2012 Feb 23.

PMID: 22358070


Expressing human interleukin-15 from oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus improves survival in a murine metastatic colon adenocarcinoma model through the enhancement of anti-tumor immunity.

Stephenson KB, Barra NG, Davies E, Ashkar AA, Lichty BD.

Cancer Gene Ther. 2012 Apr;19(4):238-46. doi: 10.1038/cgt.2011.81. Epub 2011 Dec 9.

PMID: 22158521


Herpes simplex virus-2 in the genital mucosa: insights into the mucosal host response and vaccine development.

Lee AJ, Ashkar AA.

Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;25(1):92-9. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32834e9a56. Review.

PMID: 22143115


FimH, a TLR4 ligand, induces innate antiviral responses in the lung leading to protection against lethal influenza infection in mice.

Abdul-Careem MF, Firoz Mian M, Gillgrass AE, Chenoweth MJ, Barra NG, Chan T, Al-Garawi AA,

Chew MV, Yue G, van Roojen N, Xing Z, Ashkar AA.

Antiviral Res. 2011 Nov;92(2):346-55. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.09.004. Epub 2011 Sep 14.

PMID: 21945041


Interleukin-15 treatment improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in obese mice.

Barra NG, Chew MV, Holloway AC, Ashkar AA.

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Feb;14(2):190-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01495.x. Epub 2011

Oct 30.

PMID: 21906226

Endometrial epithelial cell responses to coinfecting viral and bacterial pathogens in the genital tract can activate the HIV-1 LTR in an NFkB-and AP-1-dependent manner.

Ferreira VH, Nazli A, Khan G, Mian MF, Ashkar AA, Gray-Owen S, Kaul R, Kaushic C.

J Infect Dis. 2011 Jul 15;204(2):299-308. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir260.

PMID: 21673042


Humanized mice for Salmonella typhi infection: new tools for an old problem.

Mian MF, Pek EA, Chenoweth MJ, Coombes BK, Ashkar AA.

Virulence. 2011 May-Jun;2(3):248-52. Epub 2011 May 1.

PMID: 21623167

Stimulating natural killer cells to protect against cancer: recent developments.

Gillgrass A, Ashkar A.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2011 May;7(3):367-82. doi: 10.1586/eci.10.102. Review.

PMID: 2159560


NK cells require type I IFN receptor for antiviral responses during genital HSV-2 infection.

Gill N, Chenoweth MJ, Verdu EF, Ashkar AA.

Cell Immunol. 2011;269(1):29-37. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.03.007. Epub 2011 Mar 12.

PMID: 21477795

A critical role for IL-15 in TLR-mediated innate antiviral immunity against genital HSV-2 infection.

Thatte A, DeWitte-Orr SJ, Lichty B, Mossman KL, Ashkar AA.

Immunol Cell Biol. 2011 Aug;89(6):663-9. doi: 10.1038/icb.2011.7. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

PMID: 21339766

Innate and adaptive immunity against herpes simplex virus type 2 in the genital mucosa.

Chan T, Barra NG, Lee AJ, Ashkar AA.

J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Mar;88(2):210-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jri.2011.01.001. Epub 2011 Feb 21. Review.

PMID: 21334750


IL-15 and type I interferon are required for activation of tumoricidal NK cells by virus-infected dendritic cells.

Boudreau JE, Stephenson KB, Wang F, Ashkar AA, Mossman KL, Lenz LL, Rosenthal KL,

Bramson JL, Lichty BD, Wan Y.

Cancer Res. 2011 Apr 1;71(7):2497-506. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3025. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

PMID: 21307131


Induction of innate immune responses in the female genital tract: friend or foe of HIV-1 infection?

Firoz Mian M, Ashkar AA.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Mar;65(3):344-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2010.00945.x. Epub 2011

Jan 12. Review.

PMID: 21223417

Humanized mice are susceptible to Salmonella typhi infection.

Firoz Mian M, Pek EA, Chenoweth MJ, Ashkar AA.

Cell Mol Immunol. 2011 Jan;8(1):83-7. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2010.52. Epub 2010 Nov 8.

PMID: 21200387

CD4(+) T-cells are important in regulating macrophage polarization in C57BL/6 wild-type mice.

Chan T, Pek EA, Huth K, Ashkar AA.

Cell Immunol. 2011;266(2):180-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2010.10.002. Epub 2010 Oct 30.

PMID: 21040907


Effective control of viral infections by the adaptive immune system requires assistance from innate immunity.

Barra NG, Gillgrass A, Ashkar AA.

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010 Oct;9(10):1143-7. doi: 10.1586/erv.10.119.

PMID: 20923266

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